Organizational Structure Organization structure
The organizational structure good. Do not Aterm necessarily good performance like good constitution. It does not guaranteeheadsRepublicbones. Or laws do not forget good society on moral level”high” but the organizational structure chubby ignorant form of possibility achieving Almststal Good performance. Even if Lith. Ball Pace. Or the manager is on the side of fatalism.
Good Organization structure does not by itself produce good performance – just as a good constitution does not guarantee great presidents or good laws. Greater moral society. However. A poor organization structure makes good performance impossible no matter what. how good the individual or managers may be
The final product of the organizing process. The writer Bill defines the organizational structure as “the distribution of individuals in various ways among the social functions that affect the role relationships and between these individuals. And this definition includes:
- Division of work and specialization.
- The organization includes ranks and hierarchies.
The writers and researchers in organizational jurisprudence did not agree on one comprehensive definition of the organizational structure. And the views and concepts they presented vary in terms of comprehensiveness and depth. But they all see that the organizational structure is only a means and a tool to achieve the goals of the organization. Including the following:
Robert Applely says:
That the organizational structure is “a framework that directs the behavior of the head of the organization in making decisions. The author (Ivanccvich and colleagues 1989) sees that the organizational structure is a framework that focuses on the allocation and division of jobs. The development of systems and procedures. And the identification of the lineage.
Author Gibson and his colleagues take a similar view. Geron suggests that the organizational structure results from organizational decisions related to four aspects of any organization:
- Division of labor and specialization.
- Foundations of unit formation and organization.
- the size of these units. the scope of supervision”
- delegation of authority.
Where he sees that the organizational structure includes the following main aspects:
- The distribution of work and responsibilities among individuals.
- Determining the relationships to whom each person is affiliated with. And from the people who report to him, and determining the number of organizational levels “Implementation of the scope of supervision.
- Grouping individuals into sections and divisions into departments and departments and larger units. And so on. 4. Delegating powers and designing monitoring procedures to adhere to this.
- Designing systems and means to ensure effective internal communication and the participation of individuals in the decision-making process. As well as interaction and interaction with the public and the provision of new products and services.
- Providing the necessary rules and means for evaluating the performance of employees.
From the reality of decision-making.
The importance of organizational structure
- In spite of the different views of the authors about the nature and dimensions of the organizational structure, they unanimously agree that it is designed to help the organization achieve its goals. The writer Hall indicates that the organizational structure leads to three main functions:
- The first and most important of these functions is to achieve the outputs/products of the organization and achieve its goals.
- The organizational structure helps to reduce the differences between individuals to the lowest possible degree. The organizational structure imposes the commitment of individuals and their adherence to the requirements of the organization. And not vice versa.
- The regional structure represents the framework that prevents the exercise of power (the organizational structure decides and determines what functions have power in the organization). And decisions are taken in the light of this framework. A structure is the space for the business and activities of an organization.
We mentioned before that an organizational structure is a way to help an organization achieve its goals. The author. Peter Trucker. Believes that the organizational structure can help achieve the goals of the organization through three main areas:
- Helping to implement the task successfully. Allocating the necessary resources. And providing means of coordination among them.
- Defining the roles of individuals in the organization is what is expected of each individual to do.
- Assist in making decisions.
As for the main areas that fall under the aforementioned document areas, they are:
- Achieving the best use of the available resources.
- Avoiding overlap and duplication between activities and works.
- Avoid differences in work.
- Achieving harmony and consistency between the various organizational units and roles.
- Enabling the organization to respond to changes internally and externally and to adapt to these variables
Another writer looks at the importance of the organizational structure by presenting the numerous and dangerous negative results and effects that arise through an improper organizational structure. Including:
1-low employee morale and motivation. Due to:
- Inconsistency in decisions and lack of objectivity as a result of the lack of specific rules and standards.
- Individuals may perceive their responsibilities as numerous, as well as opportunities for advancement and recognition of their accomplishments as a result of not delegating sufficient authority to them. And this may be related to the scope of supervision.
- The lack of clarity in the role of each individual and what is expected of him, and this stems from the lack of definition and defining the tasks of the jobs.
- Individuals are exposed to conflicting pressures and requirements from different units in the organization, and as a result of the lack of a priority ladder or rules for decision-making.
- Some individuals may be overburdened with many burdens and responsibilities because the support units are not adequate.
2-The slowness of decisions and the taking of incorrect decisions due to:
- Failure to deliver information in a timely manner due to the length of the hierarchical ladder.
- The lack of sufficient coordination between decision makers in the organization.
- The heavy burdens placed on decision makers due to the lack of delegation of authority from them.
- The lack of appropriate procedures for evaluating previous similar decisions.
3-The occurrence of friction. Conflict. Lack of coordination due to:
- The presence of conflicting goals.
- Individuals work in isolation from each other without the availability of means of connection and coordination among them.
- Separation between Planning and Execution
4-The organization may not respond creatively to the documents because:
- The organizational structure does not include functions/roles that take care of vomiting and thunder. Inhale and Monitor Changes
- The senior management’s lack of awareness of the importance of creativity and change planning activities. And their failure to support them.
- The lack of sufficient coordination between the entity concerned with determining the needs of the changing market. And the entity responsible for research and technologies.
5-The increase in expenditures and expenses. Especially in the administrative fields. Due to:
- The length of the hierarchical ladder. Resulting in many heads.
- excessive procedures and written work
and effects and the negative results of the organizational structure that earned by and interest still trailing by many writers and researchers. Those affecting workers. And the organization. And those effects referred to studies: isolation. Alienation. Boredom and monotony. and the feeling of Influence on work affairs. And their psychological stability. And others.
Organizational Structure Design:
it is necessary to design works so that employees can perform them effectively and help achieve the goals of the organization and provide a new working life for the laboratories.
- Known design work as process assessing level content work and its requirements and conditions and relations work includes content two aspects:
- extent work Tailgate refers to tasks and duties that Ahttha work diversity
- Work depth (depth) and indicates D. And freedom. Mutual understanding and autonomy enjoyed by incumbent work In the accomplishment of his work
The first generation in management (Taylor. Fayol. Weber) and others have called for the application of a high degree of specialization in business design. Which helps to increase productivity. Improve quality. Reduce time required. Learn to work and facilitate training. But the results revealed many unexpected negatives. Including that the worker It has become routine. Repetitive routine duties. And requires only a limited ability of knowledge and skill. And this resulted in low product quality. Increased costs. Increased absenteeism of workers from work. Job turnover. And the worker’s feeling of money and monotony.
In general. The design of the organizational structure of the organization must take into account a basic fact that there is no ideal structure suitable for application in various organizations. At all times and for all levels of the structure. Any discrepancy in the nature of the work prevalent in the organization or the nature of the environmental conditions or the objectives to be achieved leads in one way or another to the creation and correction of differences in the nature of the organizational structure.
Design steps organizational structure:
In light of the above. It must identify basic steps that should be adopted
when doing design organizational structure of Organization namely:
- The determination basic objectives ofOrganization, as well as sub and secondary objectives, since the identification series goals (orseriesmeans. Goals) that would contribute to determining the needs of the organization. And thus the nature of the organizational structure and whether its design.
- Determining the actions or activities required to contribute to achieving the main. Subsidiary and secondary objectives}. As these lead to the development of plans that include policies. Programs and procedures related to them.
- Grouping similar and opposite jobs and functional activities into its divisions or units and assigning the management of each of them to a responsible manager or head. While giving him the necessary powers to complete his work and carry out his responsibilities efficiently and effectively.
- Describe the jobs in a comprehensive manner. Specifying all the usual and exceptional work and activities associated with them in a precise. Four-minute manner. Specifying the powers and responsibilities. The relationships and qualifications of the job occupants. And the funds entrusted to him.
- Defining the functional work relationships between the various divisions and units and creating the appropriate conditions for achieving cooperation between individuals and coordinating their efforts in a way that transcends the problems of rapprochement between businesses.
- Determining the organizational levels within the framework of the extension of the scope of supervision. Span Control. In its dynamic sense that interacts with the nature of business. In light of this. Supervisory and executive functions are identified within each division or unit in the organizational structure.
Characteristics of a good (appropriate)
organizational structure In order for the organizational structure of the organization to achieve efficiency and effectiveness and contribute to the requirements of administrative work. It must have the following characteristics:
- Balance: The principle of organizational balance includes achieving balanced relations between the powers and responsibilities granted to the individual. As well as balance within the scope of supervision. functional lines of communication. And the adoption of the principle of unity of orders issued by the various administrative levels.
- Flexibility: The principle of flexibility requires the ability of the organizational structures to be designed to accommodate continuous organizational adjustments according to the internal and external variables required by the effective organizational structure.
- Continuity: Continuity refers to the need to adopt sound scientific rules in building organizational structures and to be accurate in diagnosing reality. As well as anticipating future changes without the building being exposed to repeated fundamental changes that would confuse it.
The formation of
Organizational units Departmentnation Organizing as a logical process requires dividing the work required to achieve the objectives of the project into specialized activities. And then grouping similar activities in the form of organizational units. The organizational structure of the project consists of a number of organizational units. Each of which includes a group of similar activities. The organizational units in the projects are called different names such as department. Department. Sector type. Agency. Council. Office. Etc. There are several ways to synthesize aspects of activity similar in the form of organizational units. Listed below
- organizational division based on function Functional Dept
- Organizational division Product Product divisional dept basis
- organizational division based onuserCustomer
- organizational division based on Aljgervai Territorial
- Grouping on the basis of stages of work and equipment Process Equipment
- Compound mixed organizational division. Mixed dept
1-Organizational division on the basis of the Functional Depart
This type of organization is based on the grouping of works based on the functions and purposes they perform. So that each organizational unit is concerned with performing a specific function for the entire organization (production. Marketing. Finance. Etc) and it is possible to divide each A major function into sub-functions or minor functions.
Among the most important advantages of this type of organization are:
- Efficient performance. Reducing duplication of work and efforts. And reducing expenses.
- Facilitating the process of training individuals as a result of grouping similar jobs in one job.
- Assisting senior management in exercising effective control over work.
- The most important negatives are:
- The tendency of individuals to focus on the objectives of their management and to neglect the objectives of the organization.
- The president bears responsibility for the performance, and this increases the president’s burdens.
- The difficulty of coordinating the main activities as the organization expands.
- Not paying proper attention to products. Markets. And users.
Figure No. (1) Organization on the basis of functionality
This type of organization can benefit from the principle of daily specialization of activities related to the main functions of the company. And thus lead to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of performance.
2-Functional division on the basis of geographical areas:
This method is used in projects that distribute their activities in different geographical areas.
Organizing on the basis of geographical area or location involves grouping events or activities on the basis of a specific geographical area.
In such an organization the activities of planning. Allocating resources. Controlling resources and identifying desired products are the task of the central management of the company. While the executive responsibility is the task of district officials who cover the various markets served. The benefit of this organization. Especially when the products are modular. Is the identification of responsibility for achieving goals in each organization, with reliance on achieving common goals. As in Figure (2)
of most important advantages this regulation:
- Define responsibility at lower levels of the organization.
- Giving sufficient attention to markets and local problems.
- Helping to make decisions quickly.
- Interacting with the local community directly. Enthusiastic and meeting its needs.
- Provides a good basis for the training and development of managers.
- Allows to benefit from the capabilities. Facilities and materials available in the geographical area.
- Among the most important disadvantages:
- Difficulty in coordinating between geographical areas.
- Possibility of some starting points to follow policies contrary to public policies.
- Increases the difficulty of exercising effective control by senior management.
- It is not allowed to benefit from the central support services unit/activities.
Figure No. (2) Geographical organization by regions
3- Division on the basis of products: Product / Divisional Dep
In this type of organization. Organizational units are entrusted with the high development of several products and the coordination of activities according to products from a specific area is done by some specialized employees and here the general objectives are determined by the general management of the company. But The preparation of the strategy by naming the products is carried out by the product officials. As shown in Figure.
This type of organization is suitable when the project is large and its products (producers. Markets or distribution channels) are very diverse and the situations and unstable situations that require a high degree of sensitivity and response to the unique needs and requirements of products. Markets and buyers.
Among its most important advantages:
- Focusing attention and efforts on production lines.
- concentration power. Responsibility and accountability unit (specific organizational units).
- Limitation of Liability for profits.
- facilitate identification and measurement of performance.
- provides a good basis for the training of managers.
- The negatives are:
- High costs as a result of duplication of efforts.
It requires large numbers of individuals with administrative and supervisory capabilities.
It increases the difficulty of exercising effective control by senior management.
Figure No. (3) Organization by products
4 – Organizational division on the basis of clients (beneficiaries):
Organizations resort to this type of business grouping in cinemas whose interest is to serve the audience of beneficiaries of its peace or services, and strive hard to meet their desires and tendencies. Here, the various works that are directed to serve a particular category (or a particular market or a particular distribution channel) are grouped together by an organizational unit that entrusts the responsibility of managing it to a single manager or chief.
One of the most important advantages of this organization is
that it helps the organization satisfy its desires and the needs of the various beneficiaries/market, and it also defines responsibility. Its downsides are the difficulty of coordinating between organizational units based on this basis and those based on other, simpler ones.
It also increases the possibility of not achieving the effective use of manpower and available facilities, especially in periods of recession and fluctuation of the organization’s activity.
5 – Organizational division on the basis of the production process:
This type of organization is common in industrial business organizations and according to which jobs or activities are grouped, according to technical processes, equipment and machines for specialized purposes, and here means that the organization of work inside the factory is their home on the basis of collecting all the successive machines and equipment Which provides production or performs a work of one nature in a specific location, then brings materials and tools to the site to practice the productive activity. Perhaps the motive for conducting this type of organization can be shown as follows:
- The large size of the equipment, so that it is difficult to distribute it in different sections and then They are assembled in one place or viewing places according to the required production processes.
- The similarity of the skills required for a particular type of machinery and processes so that it would be better then to organize the work on the basis of gathering these skills and processes, in a specific place.
- Existence of huge technical facilities that call for the concentration of operations rather than their dispersal.
- The economic advantages that can be gained from this compilation.
This organizational division is characterized by its ability to benefit from the principle of specialization. It also facilitates the supervision process. And to make greater use of machinery and equipment.
Among the disadvantages of this organization is the difficulty of coordinating between the different stages or processes and the difficulty of achieving balance in the production line, and that any error or defect in one of the processes, due to its cessation of work, will reflect negatively on other processes and thus on the entire production line.
According to this organizational division, there are three basic ways of work flow within the organizational unit:
1-According to this method, one employee receives the work to be completed, and undertakes all the operations or steps necessary to complete the work without the participation of another employee. If the volume of work is large, then more than one staff can be allocated to do it in proportion to the volume of work. Each of them also takes the required steps. It is taken into account that the offices of these employees are arranged so that the offices of each of them are placed near the other, and the workflows in parallel lines. Among the advantages of this method are the following:
- Achieving the satisfaction of the employees for their sense of their importance in the organization in which they work, as each employee has completed the work in full.
- Reducing the waiting time for dealers,
but the following are taken on this method:
- Failure to observe the principle of specialization in work.
- Weak oversight of the employees’ work, because the participation of more than one employee in the completion or completion of the work makes each of them a watchdog over the other.
Method According to this method, the work is divided into steps that are carried out in sequence by a number of employees, as each employee means the completion or completion of a step or steps, allowing the application of the principle of specialization and allowing for control over the employees’ work. But this method is flawed by the emergence of bottlenecks in some offices due to the delay in implementing a certain step, which forces the employee to wait until the completion of the previous step..
According to this method, the work is distributed over the number of workers, as each of them performs one of the work steps at the same time, meaning that the various work steps are performed at the same time by different groups of workers specialized in performing a certain step. This method is characterized by speed in getting the work done while at the same time celebrating the element of specialization among employees in doing business.
The choice of this method governs a set of factors represented in the nature of work, workload, work characteristics, working conditions, and the level of workers’ skills, in addition to the factors of confidentiality, economy and quality.
6-division of organizational time – based (time): Depart By Time
represents this type of organization oldest types subdivisions administrative known today, is a method used to Taqiq several goals at once is
- fulfilling vows that organizations deliver products at specific times.
- Exploiting the financial capabilities and facilities available to the organization instead of being idle.
- Organization Work in times achieved overall objectives ofOrganization.
- provide direct service to the community through operation greater numbers of workers and alleviate unemployment.
- provide direct service to the community through operation greater numbers of workers and alleviate unemployment.
- And the advantages of the division of jobs on the basis of time:
- Exploitation of available resources.
- The ability to adapt and meet the change in demand for the organization’s products, goods or services.
- Ability to respond to customer requests.
- optimal use of machinery and equipment and devices.
- Among its shortcomings:
- The difficulty of supervision and coordination between the work of successive “shifts”, in addition to the problems of delivery between different nuclei.
- The complexity of supervision operations.
- the inability of workers to concentrate because of fatigue and exhaustion.
7-Organizational division of the Cosmic Matrix:
The matrix organization first appeared in the space industry, and in the organizational structure of
Lockheed, Social Dynamics, LTV: Boeing, Piper Aircraft,
The matrix organization consists of the company’s functional areas and the global product groups. As in Figure (4),
or the project departments that are responsible for coordinating activities across the various functional areas of the company, and the managers of these areas share their powers and responsibilities.
Figure No. (4) Organization of the Cosmic Matrix
The matrix consists of two main lines of the flow of authority, the line of flow of authority vertically in the departments and functional areas) from top to bottom, and the line of flow of authority horizontally from the management teams and project management as
shown in Figure (4) and parallel lines of authority in both directions, but from different sources The manager assumes the functional management, the tasks of directing and supervising the activities of his units, and at the same time this unit receives the directions and decisions of the project or product managers.
Figure No. (8) The Matrix Structure of the Organization
Matrix organization combines the advantages of the functional organizational structure and the organizational structure of projects or products, which provides a greater opportunity for investing human resources, blending diverse experiences, and growing educational skills, especially on problems, and decision-making. However, the fundamental problem facing management and dealing with this type of organization is the difficulty of coordination between functional departments and project departments, which leads to the emergence of major problems such as duplication, conflict, and organizational conflict in its various forms and degrees.
8-Mixed organizational division:
This type of grouping represents a mixed mixture of applying different rules for dividing and grouping activities, especially since there is no integrated organizational model suitable for application in different companies, or for all their organizational levels, so the contemporary organization often uses a set of organizational foundations. The adoption of such a method is related to the nature of activities, the organizational level, the number of those dealing with them, and their working conditions. As in Figure (6).
Figure No. (6) Mixed Organization
Hence, it is clear that there is no organizational model to be adopted in a way that is compatible with all companies, because the nature of the company (in terms of its size, specificity of its performance, and the activities performed in it) calls for variation in the adoption of different regulatory rules that are consistent with the nature of the objectives to be achieved. (Al-Shama`a, Hammoud, 2009).
The Organizational Chart The Organization Chart
defines the Organization Chart as “a form of graph that covers the important tasks of navigating such as the main and sub-departments, and the interconnectedness of each other, the channels of administrative supervision, as well as the boundaries of the staff yards within the framework of administrative functions. From this definition, it is clear that the organizational chart It does not mean more than clarifying power Further line organization
known organizational chart as a picture or diagram of structure organization, showing administrative units that up, jobs in them, and line authority and responsibility linking parts (organization).
and draw organizational charts to illustrate current structure of organizations, ie To show the civil administrative organization that is followed at the present time and which the organizations will be in the
future.The organizational charts can be divided into two types: The main maps: Waster charts and auxiliary charts. Supplementary charts. This first type of map shows the comprehensive picture of the administrative organization of the organization, including its departments, sections, units and people, and the relationships between these parts
or the relevant department.
Objectives of organizational charts Organizational charts
are used to achieve many goals, including the following:
- Defining the framework of the organization, its administrative units, and the functions that make up those units.
- A statement of how the work is divided among the employees in the organization.
- Clarify the lines of authority and responsibility of the organization.
- Clarify the relationships between the various departments and sections.
- Introducing the employee to his direct superior, and introducing the superior to his subordinates.
- Clarify the number of administrative levels in the organization.
- A statement of the existing committees in the organization, their powers and their relationship to the parts of the organization.
- The organizational map is used as a clarification when training new employees, through which the new employees are exposed to the organizational structure of the organization, indicating the positions they will occupy, and identifying the people who will be in contact with them, whether they are their bosses or their subordinates.
- The organizational map performs informational purposes, as it helps visitors (from outside the organization) to identify the sections of the organization, and the people in it.
- The organizational map helps in discovering and treating errors in the organization. When drawing the organizational map, the errors in the organization’s structure appear, and the violations Rules of administrative organization, for example, that the employee has two or more bosses (violating the principle of unity of command or the presidency), or that the number of administrative levels exceed the proper limits, or that the scope of supervision for some administrators is very wide, in violation of the principle of the scope of supervision).
Organizational Guide: Organization Guide
The most important contents of the guide are:
- The authorities and responsibilities of each job.
- The specific duties of each job, and the qualifications required of those who occupy it.
- Relationships between the main departments of the organization.
For example, deserters can, through the guide, know detailed information about personnel management about the nature of this job, the authorities and responsibilities – his job duties in detail, and their relationship with other departments in the organization.
Advantages and disadvantages of the organizational map and the organizational guide:
- The organizational chart and guide, especially in the preparation or review stage, help those in charge of this process to understand the nature of administrative processes and identify the pickpockets of the organization, which is generally to avoid duplication of duties and responsibilities.
- The map and the guide, including the information it contains, provide a term for managers and their assistants, and excite the deficiencies in their abilities and qualifications, and then work on developing them through joining training programs.
- Clarifying the steps of administrative promotion for employees.
- The map and guide provide an important source of information for the official authorities or individuals and external organizations.
- The map and the guide also provide detailed information on the most important duties around which the officials’ attention must be focused.
Drawbacks of the map:
- Among the defects of the organizational chart and the evidence are that they are described as steadfastness, stagnation, and a long period of time in which the review and evaluation are submissive.
- One of the defects of the organizational chart and the guide is that they only show the official aspects, while we find that the impact of the informal organization may be great, with a hadith, that what is written and specified in the map or guide does not represent the actual reality of the existing relations between the parties to the organization.
- The map and the. Lille does not guarantee the success of management practice to the extent that it provides the means and assistance to coaches and officials in understanding the nature of their work.
Supervision Scope of Supervision
Graicturas dealt with the subject of the scope of management, and he is the French management consultant. After a long study of the research of the relations of superiors and subordinates, he distinguished between three types of relations:
1-Direct Single Relationships
These relations arise between the boss and each of his subordinates. a) Three subordinates are “B”, “C”, and “D”. The number of direct individual relationships are three.
2-Direct Group Relationships
These relationships exist when the superior communicates with a specific subordinate and in the presence of one or more other subordinates or in the presence of all of them. C, B with D, C with D, B with D,…etc.
These relationships exist when the subordinates should consult among themselves. If the superior (A) has three subordinates who are D, C, then the horizontal relations are: B to C to D, C to B, C to D, D to B, D to NS.
The need for division shows vertical differentiation to help achieve coordination at the level of single organizational units and between units, so it is necessary to determine the number of employees who will be subordinate to one head.
The issue of the scope of supervision, or what some call the scope of supervision, and there is a maximum number of direct subordinates that the supervisor can effectively supervise, and this depends on several variables, the most important of which are:
- The superior’s abilities, inclinations and tendencies.
- Subordinates’ abilities and attitudes
- The extent of interaction between subordinates and their boss
- The amount of non-supervisory work required of the boss.
- The frequency with which new problems occur in the unit.
- the extent of the expansion and implementation of policies, instructions and procedures.
- the extent of the use of assistants by the president.
As for the relationship of the scope of supervision with the organizational structure of the organization, the scope of supervision greatly affects the specific administrative levels and there is an inverse relationship between the scope of supervision and the number of these levels. Hierarchy and lower management levels.
Expanding the scope of supervision requires subordinates to make their own decisions and allows more freedom and action, encourages the exercise of general supervision by the superior, and works indirectly to raise morale, increase employee satisfaction, and increase productivity.
Factors that determine the scope of supervision
Delegating level: Whether the manager or manager will make important decisions to delegate supervision to a specified number of producers.
Specific supervision time: It is difficult for the manager to supervise a large number of subordinates, and he does not allow this.
Diversity and multiplicity of activities: the manager may not be able to supervise a large number of individuals if he is facing difficulties and problems.
Among the advantages of broad supervision
- Forcing the superiors or the higher administrative level to undermine the authority to the lower administrative level because there is not enough time for the higher administrative level to supervise all matters.
- Increasing the scope of supervision reduces costs and consequently a reduction in specialized administrative expenses such as the salaries of administrators and supervisors.
- Communicate information in a clear manner, since the short presidential chain often reduces communication obstacles and problems caused by the large number of administrative levels.
- Make the subordinates feel the responsibility by their participation in bearing it as part of the administrative development.
- Raising the morale of individuals due to their participation in taking responsibility and making decisions in the field of their tasks. Daily
Disadvantages of the wide scope of supervision:
- If the scope of supervision is large, it reduces the chances of promotion for individuals and subordinates due to the lack of leadership positions necessary for promotion.
- It may be difficult to coordinate between the horizontal administrative levels.
- The high costs of training individuals to be promoted to occupy supervisory positions.
- The presence of people specialized in operating management, reduces the dispersal of thought at the lower administrative level to operate operations.
- Oversight of the superiors’ ability to supervise because of the large scope of supervision
- The Difficulty in the process of control if the manager is found to be a weak person.
The scope of supervision and the size of the project:
The manager may supervise a number of no more than 35 employees, if the mentioned number is working in a company where work does not require supervision, such as research centers. But increasing the number to reach 35 producers will require the establishment of another administrative level and entail delegating the authority to the lower administrative level.